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Mosquito-Borne Diseases

Mosquito-Borne Diseases

Mosquitoes are the deadliest animals around the world. They carry and spread many diseases to human beings which causes millions of death every year. The incidence rate of malaria has rise up to 30-fold in the past and more countries have reported outbreaks of the disease. Aedes aegypti mosquito transmits diseases like Zika, dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever to humans.

Mosquito-Borne Diseases
Mosquito-Borne Diseases

These species covers a large area which covers more than half of the population. There are many successful methods to prevent outbreaks of mosquitoes which in turn prevent the spread of diseases. They are several species of mosquitoes out of which some of them carry many different diseases. Let’s check out the most common diseases transmitted by Aedes, Culex and Anopheles mosquitoes. Here are the most common mosquito-borne diseases:-

Chikungunya

Chikungunya is a type of virus transmitted through infectious mosquito bite to humans by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Primary host for this type of virus is humans. There are also possibilities for blood-borne transmission. There are chances of in utero transmission, intrapartum transmission. It can also be transferred through breast milk from the mother to the infant.

Signs and symptoms:-

Most of the symptoms appear after the bite of the infected mosquito between 4 to 7 days. These are the following symptoms:-

  • High fever and chills
  • Severe joint pain
  • Headache
  • Arthritis
  • Myalgia
  • Nausea, vomiting
  • Rashes, fatigue
  • The symptoms usually subside within 2-3 days. Chikungunya is not much fatal to human beings.

Diagnosis

Chikungunya shares most sign similar to dengue fever and it is often misdiagnosed as dengue fever. It can be diagnosed using serological tests.

Treatment

Treatment for this type of virus include

  • Rest
  • NSAIDs
  • Electrolyte balance
  • Corticosteroids
  • Physiotherapy

Prevention

  • The easy way to prevent this disease is to prevent mosquito bite.
  • Use insect repellent
  • Wear full sleeves shirts and long pants. Use permethrin on clothes and gear.
  • Use air conditioning
  • Repair and clean stagnant areas at home to prevent the laying of mosquitoes egg.

Zika Virus

Zika Virus is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. It was first identified in Uganda in monkeys in the year 1947. Then it’s outbreaks have been recorded in Africa, the Americans and Asians. It is transmitted through a mosquito bite, from mother to foetus, through sex, through blood transfusion as well.

Signs and symptoms

They are mild symptoms reported by infected patients. Most common symptoms are

  • Rashes
  • Joint pain
  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Red eyes
  • Pain in muscles

These symptoms usually last for a few days to a week. Zika Virus is risky because it can cause birth defects of the brain like microscopically to the child if the mother is infected by Zika virus during pregnancy.

Diagnosis

Blood test and urine test help to diagnose Zika Virus

Zika Virus symptoms are similar to dengue and chikungunya

Treatment

Zika Virus can’t be treated with particular drugs but the symptoms can be controlled by giving the following medications:-

  • Acetaminophen to relieve fever
  • NSAIDs for muscle and joint pain
  • Take plenty of fluids
  • Take proper rest

Prevention

  • Wear protective clothing to avoid mosquito in the first place
  • Cover full body with protective garments
  • Use lemon oil or any other natural insect repellent
  • Avoid use insect repellent on babies younger than two months
  • For two months old or younger babies use a mosquito net.

Dengue

Dengue fever is transmitted through infected mosquitoes. It can affect anyone but is more severe in patients with a weakened immune system. Dengue virus has got five stereotypes which can cause fever for multiple times. Meanwhile, our body produces immunity for a lifetime for particular stereotype to which there were exposed. It is also called break bone fever and dandy fever.

Signs and symptoms

There is usually an acute illness followed by a benign course of symptoms like

  • Severe muscle and joint pain
  • Exhaustion and fatigue
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Headache
  • Bleeding gums
  • Severe pain in the eyes
  • Red palms and soles
  • Small red spots and blisters under the skin
  • Black stool
  • Easily bruised

The incubation period for dengue fever usually ranges from 3 to 15 days before the early signs and symptoms appear.

Diagnosis

Many health care professionals use a blood test called Detect IgM capture (DENV) or ELISA to diagnose dengue fever.

Treatment

They are no specific antibiotics to treat dengue virus because it attacks always with different serotypes. However, we can manage signs and symptoms by using NSAIDS, acetaminophen and codeine which is used for headache and joint pain.

Proper rest and care should be given to patients. They should be given enough fluids to prevent dehydration. They are also research that shows papaya leaf extract is effective in treating dengue fever

Mosquito-Borne Diseases Mosquitoes are the deadliest animals around the world. They carry and spread many diseases to human beings which causes millions of death every year. The incidence rate of malaria has rise up to 30-fold in the past and more countries have reported outbreaks of the disease. Aedes aegypti…

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